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01 July, 2007:
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Putonghua Initials

Phonetic Description IPA Pinyin Wade-Giles Gwoyeu Romatzyh 注音符号
Voiceless unaspirated bilabial stop [p] b p b
voiceless aspirated bilabial stop [pʰ] p p' p
bilabial nasal stop [m] m m m
voiceless labial fricative [f] f f f
voiceless unaspirated dental stop [t] d t d
voiceless aspirated dental stop [tʰ] t t' t
dental nasal stop [n] n n n
voiced dental lateral [l] l l l
voiceless unaspirated velar stop [k] g k g
voiceless aspirated velar stop [kʰ] k k' k
voiceless glottal fricative [h] h h h
voiced alveolar-palatal affricate [ʤ] j ch(frontV) j(i)
voiceless alveolar-palatal affricate [ʧ] q ch'(frontV) ch(i)
voiceless alveolar-palatal fricative [ʃ] x hs sh(i)
voiced retroflex affricate [dƺ] zh ch j
voiceless retroflex affricate [tʂ] ch ch' ch
voiceless retroflex fricative [ʂ] sh sh sh
voiced retroflex approximant [ɻ] r j r
voiced dental affricate [ʣ] z tz/ts tz
voiceless dental affricate [ʦ] c tz'/ts' ts
voiceless dental fricative [s] s sz/ss/s s
velar nasal stop (not an initial) [ŋ] ng ng ng n/a